Bell (1973) , recognized that the inflows into Europe in 1970 and 1971, led to increases in European central bank? holdings of dollars. The Bundesbank was affected to a better extent than other central banks, and this was reinforced after February 1971 by speculative stress in opposition to the dollar, and in favour of the DM and to a lesser extent the Swiss-Franc (SFr). Given, that the buck inflows from the underlying US steadiness of funds deficit, have been perhaps solely a quarter of the entire dollar flow into in Western Europe, and Japan over the 12 months to August 1971 , the Euro-dollar market might have drastically magnified the difficulty of the dollar. Bell concludes that the existence of the Euro-dollar market most likely triggered re-alignment and the following breakdown to happen ahead of it might need executed in the absence of a Euro-greenback market.
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It began again in the United States.
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